Ginkgo biloba leaf extract contains two main bioactive constituents— ginkgoflavonglycosides (24%) and terpene lactones (6%)—and is used in the formula because of its reported stress-alleviating and memory-supportive effects as well as its ability to support the health and integrity of neurons. The mechanisms of action may be mediated through its antioxidant, antihypoxic, and microcirculatory actions.
24 weeks of supplementation with a 240mg EGb-761 formulation of ginkgo is able to improve cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms in persons with dementia (Alzheimer's and vascular origin).
Supplementation of 240mg EGb-761 once daily for a period of 24 weeks is associated with improvements on symptoms of dementia as assessed by SKT and NPI in outpatients with dementia.
Supplementation of 240mg ginkgo daily for a period of 24 weeks in persons with dementia from either alzheimer's or vascular origin is associated with significant improvements in cognition as assessed by SKT (3.2 point improvement while placebo experienced a 1.3 point decrement).
The addition of 40mg EGb-761 to supplementation of 75mg aspirin over the course of three months was able to significantly outperform aspirin in treating persons who suffered from a cerebral infarct injury, as assessed by cognitive parameters such as executive ability, attention, abstract, deferred memories, and orientation force. This suggests improvements against vascular cognitive decline.
An increase in blood flow was noted, although restricted to the middle cerebral artery and anterior cerebral artery.
Supplementation of EGb-761 daily over the course of 3 months in elderly persons experiencing cognitive decline but not diagnosed with dementia or other neurodegenerative diseases noted improvements in cognition and reaction time relative to placebo.
Supplementation of 240mg EGb-761 daily for a period of 24 weeks in persons already diagnosed with alzheimer's and/or dementia noted that supplementation was associated with more instances of memory and cognitive improvement than placebo.
Supplementation of a tincture of ginkgo leaves (70% ethanolic extract; Geriaforce) noted improvements in short term visual memory (BENTON test) although attention processing, working memory, and cognitive decline (MMSE) were unaffected.
In cognitively well older adults given 180mg EGb-761 daily for a period of six weeks, memory and processing speed appeared to be increased although attention and task switching (trail making test) were unaffected with treatment.
Supplementation of 240mg EGb-761 daily for six weeks in otherwise healthy middle aged adults was associated with improvements in information recall (via remembering simulated appointments) but was unable to improve other parameters of cognition (recognition memory).
Mood was stable over the course of the experiment.
In older adults that are not diagnosed with dementia who are then given either 180mg EGb-761 or placebo daily for a period of six weeks, supplementation is associated with improved delay recall, delayed recognition, and face recognition tests.