N-Acetyl-Cysteine is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier and is known to combat oxidative stress, and reduced oxidative stress may support healthier nerve tissue. L-carnitine is a vital cofactor for mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids providing the brain with an energy substrate.
Acetyl-L-carnitine, an ester of L-carnitine, possesses properties that may be effective in supporting healthy cognition with age.[2,3]
The phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) plays an important functional role in membrane-related processes in the brain and regulates the release of acetylcholine, dopamine, and noradrenaline. PS appears to support neuronal health and healthy brain function, possibly through its effect on cytokine production and their influence on microglia.*
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1. Farr SA, Poon HF, Dogrukol-Ak D, et al. The antioxidants alpha-lipoic acid and N-acetylcysteine reverse memory impairment and brain oxidative stress in aged SAMP8 mice. J Neurochem. 2003 Mar;84(5):1173-83. [PMID: 12603840]
2. Virmani A, Binienda Z. Role of carnitine esters in brain neuropathology. Mol Aspects Med. 2004 Oct-Dec;25(5-6):533-49. [PMID: 15363640]
3. Milgram NW, Araujo JA, Hagen TM, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine and alpha-lipoic acid supplementation of aged beagle dogs improves learning in two landmark discrimination tests. FASEB J. 2007 Nov;21(13):3756-62. [PMID: 17622567]
4. Hashioka S, Han YH, Fujii S, et al. Phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine containing liposomes inhibit amyloid beta and interferon-gamma-induced microglial activation. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007 Apr;42(7):945-54. [PMID: 17349923]
Additional Research and Evidence
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in neurological disorders: mechanisms of action and therapeutic opportunities.
N-Acetylcysteine in depressive symptoms and functionality: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Anti-oxidant treatment in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.
Systematic review of N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of addictions.
Synaptic and cellular changes induced by the schizophrenia susceptibility gene G72 are rescued by N-acetylcysteine treatment
N-acetylcysteine protects memory decline induced by streptozotocin in mice.